Jason is the president of MSK, where he began his career in 1998. As company president, he maintains key client relationships and cultivates new opportunities, directs the company’s strategic decisions, and supports the growth and development of MSK’s people.
A civil engineer by training, Jason has long been interested in the role of creativity in engineering services and holds that the best engineering consultants provide more than just technical skill; they also cultivate an understanding of clients’ long-term vision and develop projects to help clients realize this vision. In keeping with this philosophy, Jason works to develop new leaders in the engineering profession who can not only solve pressing client problems but also cultivate new opportunities for community investment, growth, and transformation.
As a professional committed to building vibrant communities, Jason is an active and involved community member. In 2005, he joined the Cambridge (NY) Community Partnership. In his decade of service, he contributed to a wide range of community renewal and reinvestment initiatives, including a major redevelopment project that required new wastewater treatment infrastructure, for which Jason secured a $160,000 grant from the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority to fund an innovative on-site wastewater system treating 8,000 gallons per day. Jason currently serves on the board of the Bennington County Industrial Corporation, and he provides leadership to the Southern Vermont CEDS steering committee as chair of the Bennington County Regional Economic Development board. He is a member of the Vermont Business Roundtable.
Jason earned a B.S. in civil engineering from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, where he has also worked as an adjunct professor. He lives in White Creek, NY.
Steph has been with MSK since 2016 and manages MSK’s operations, finances, and human resources, drawing on her wide and varied experience in business administration. Prior to joining MSK, Steph was the business manager of the Career Development Center (now Southwest Tech), where she managed an annual budget of $4.3 million, including thousands of dollars in state and federal grants, as well as human resources. She has also served as the treasurer of the Southwest Vermont Supervisory Union Elementary School District and assistant treasurer of Mount Anthony Union High School and the Southwest Vermont Supervisory Union. She previously worked as an accountant in southwest Vermont and, prior to that, in audits and taxation at a midsize CPA firm in the Albany region.
Steph has long been an active member of the community, most notably on issues related to education and health care. She has served on the board of the Bennington Early Childhood Center, and in 2020, she joined the board of United Counseling Services, where she remains an active member.
Steph earned her B.S. in business administration from the University of Vermont, with a concentration in accounting and a minor in psychology.
Andrew joined us in the Fall of 2018 as a Staff Engineer and is currently part of the design team at MSK working to complete project plan sets and permit applications. With over 9 years of civil and geotechnical engineering experience, Andrew has managed projects ranging from single family residential site design to commercial and institutional site development and has permitted multiple storm water projects, from multiunit residential subdivisions to commercial properties using a variety of treatment methods. He has both experience and formal training in project management, and as lead engineer, he applies this expertise to overseeing development of conceptual alternatives, plan production, timely completion of team deliverables, coordination with subconsultants, and management of public meetings.
Prior to joining MSK, Mr. Rodriguez developed expertise in site design, on-site wastewater disposal, and municipal reconstruction projects as a member of a large metro-area firm. He has previously worked on the north shore of Massachusetts where he gained experience in soil testing and site design. In his free time Andrew enjoys being outside with his family and playing soccer.
Eamon has been with MSK since 2006. His experience and qualifications include five years of experience as a registered land surveyor and more than a decade of surveying experience. His work is critical to our team’s ability to identify, work within, and verify boundaries and to establish correct elevations for grading according to construction document specifications.
A licensed land surveyor in the state of Vermont, he has worked closely with other members of the MSK team on residential subdivisions and the design of commercial and industrial facilities and municipal projects. Mr. Mulligan has assisted with the existing conditions boundary work for multiple large-scale water line projects for the Town of Bennington and has extensive experience with generating flood elevation certificates.
Abby directs permitting and contract development at MSK. She brings to this position more than a decade of experience in law firms specializing in residential and commercial property transactions. As a member of MSK’s leadership team, Abby helps guide the company’s direction and growth. She has also served in administrative and project management roles since joining MSK in 2016.
Abby is known for her skill at communicating complex legal and regulatory issues to clients from project inception to completion. A practiced negotiator, she advocates for client needs early and often in the permitting process, while her collaborative style has helped her build positive, long-term professional relationships with regulatory colleagues. With a firm grasp of state and local permitting requirements, Abby contributes to feasibility assessment during project development, supports and expedites engineering design, and helps our construction team protect clients from risk through permit compliance. She has extensive experience with Vermont’s Act 250.
Outside of the office, Abby serves as a justice of the peace and a member of the Board of Civil Authority for the Town of Shaftsbury, and she stays busy as the mother of two awesome sons. Abby earned a B.A. in history from Hobart and William Smith Colleges in Geneva, New York.
Craig recently joined MSK. His professional career began in 2003 and has focused on design, permitting, and construction of residential and commercial site development projects. He has worked at design firms in Nantucket, Massachusetts and Woodstock, Vermont, where his primary focus was in civil site design, including site design, municipal sewer, water and drainage, stormwater treatment and environmental permitting, including the lead on dozens of Act 250 permit projects.
Pat is a senior engineer at MSK and the director of our Montpelier office. He joined MSK in 2020 and brings to our clients more than 15 years of experience in environmental engineering. He is responsible for guiding the development of water treatment and distribution projects and new business initiatives.
Pat is dedicated to developing engineering solutions that make life better for people while decreasing the human footprint on the environment. In his previous position at the Vermont Department of Environmental Conservation’s Public Drinking Water Supply Program, he worked to ensure that Vermonters have universal access to clean water delivered through safe, reliable infrastructure. In this role, he led the public water system construction permit program, helped to draft regulations to protect the public from groundwater contamination, and oversaw inspections of all types of water systems in Vermont.
As a project engineer, he is attracted to difficult and dynamic engineering problems. Early in his career, he conducted original research on mine water treatment technologies and bioremediation systems. He has since developed broad professional expertise on the remediation of groundwater and surface water contaminants including heavy metals, radionuclides, gas and oil, products of combustion, and industrial chemicals. As part of this work, he has been involved in Superfund projects.
Currently, Pat is guiding MSK’s environmental engineering practice, focusing on water quality and contaminant remediation projects. He is the primary project lead for the preparation of water service line inventories and lead service line replacement projects and has been the driving force behind our development of an innovative systematic stepwise approach which effectively identify lead while reducing costs by half. He is also currently collaborating with the USEPA Office of Research and Development to submit a journal on these techniques for publication in Fall 2023.
Pat holds an M.S. in environmental science and engineering from the Colorado School of Mines and a B.S. in environmental engineering from the University of New Hampshire. He lives with his family in Montpelier.
Jess joined MSK in 2021, bringing with her 25 years of civil and environmental engineering expertise based in western Mass and southern Vermont.
Born and raised around Washington DC and northern Virginia, Jess attended the University of Vermont, and is currently living in Wilmington, Vermont. She is a single mom of four fantastic young adults, aged 17-24, and two dogs, and they all feel very lucky every day to be so close to hiking trails, skiing, a lovely lake and loads of year-round outdoor fun.
In her free time, she enjoys Nordic skiing, gardening, playing and coaching soccer, hiking, mountain biking, paddleboarding, swimming and lake barbeques with family and friends.
Nicholas brings over 8 years of project management experience in the field and in the office providing design, funding, and construction oversight for institutional site development projects as well as municipal improvement projects. He joined MSK in 2016 initially as a construction inspector and field survey crew member, and is now responsible for overseeing multimillion dollar contracts. He specializes in contract compliance oversight on high-value projects in the public eye, roadway rehabilitation and reconstruction inspection, funding submissions, and compliance with regulations governing environmental, archaeological, and historic resources.
Nicholas is also a construction manager and EIT who works with engineers, inspectors, and contractors to execute projects throughout the Northeast as well as a current environmental remediation project in Silverton, CO. After his first career opportunity serving as a Construction Manager for the Naval Facilities Engineering Command in Jacksonville, FL, Nicholas embraced the post-design aspect of engineering. Connecting with all contributors to a project, including engineers, surveyors, town officials, as well as construction crews has proved to be insightful and fulfilling on his journey to practicing the Civil Engineering profession. Nicholas graduated with a BS in Civil Engineering from New Mexico State University.
In his free time, Nicholas enjoys mountain biking the southern Vermont region and working with his wife at their horse boarding and training facility in Pownal.
Charles is a recent addition to our MSK team, bringing with him 40 years of demonstrable geotechnical and environmental engineering experience, including working on over 100+ dams throughout New England and New York.
He has extensive expertise in subsoil investigations, foundation design and field investigations for geotechnical and dam projects which have included slope stability analysis and design, detailed dam investigation studies, vertical and horizontal bearing capacity analysis for both shallow and deep foundation systems, ground improvement methods, seepage analysis and subdrainage design, implementation of geotechnical problems by solution on computers, soil laboratory testing, testing of soil improvement methods and field inspections and testing. His services have varied extensively in size and complexity and have included stone masonry, concrete, earth embankment, arch dams and all aspects of impoundment structure projects and related appurtenant structures.
Charles was the FERC approved Independent Consultant for the first Part 12 inspection of the Congaon Dam in Montville, Connecticut, the second, third, and fourth Part 12 inspections of the Sebec Dam in Sebec, Maine, and the first and second Part 12 inspections for the Pittsfield Dam in Pittsfield, New Hampshire. Currently based in New Hampshire, in his free time he enjoys boating along the New England seacoast, hiking, and traveling.
Originally hailing from Rochester, NY, Stacy plays a key role in overseeing MSK’s operations, recruiting, HR, and a multitude of day-to-day activities to support our multiple office locations. Stacy brings our team deep experience in operations management from her prior position as the Operations Administrator for a small business providing behavioral health services for children with autism. In this role her many hats included employee recruitment, onboarding, training compliance, timesheet management, payroll, and performance tracking.
Holding a Master’s in Occupational Therapy, the majority of her career has been spent in healthcare, working as an Occupational Therapist. This portion of Stacy’s career focused on enabling adults and children to do the things they wanted and needed to do in their daily lives. She is also an avid community organizer and volunteer, most recently serving as a founding member of the Penfield AntiRacist Alliance where she spearheaded efforts to facilitate collaborative social justice work in Rochester, NY.
When not supporting 45+ staff and engineers, Stacy enjoys hiking with her family, reading, and crocheting.
Bio coming soon!
Jasmine joined the MSK team in 2021, bringing with her 5 years of expertise in construction materials testing and 8 years of service on the US Navy. In her free time she enjoys camping and hiking.
Liam has been supervising all of MSK’s outreach and operations for lead service line identification projects since 2018. He draws on a unique combination of backgrounds, including GIS, data management, permitting, environmental justice, natural sciences, and health education to craft effective projects and public outreach campaigns.
He received a BA in Environmental Science and Public Action from Bennington College in 2018. Outside of work, Liam is an avid reader, hiker, artist and cook. He is also a member of First Proof Press printmaking studio in Brattleboro, VT, and a founding member of a nonprofit fraternal lodge for collaboratively paying off student loans.
Aubrey joined MSK in 2022, after earning a B.S. in Civil Engineering from the University of Vermont. Her previous experience includes projects involving site development, transportation design, wastewater and stormwater infrastructure design, and geotechnical engineering, and she has worked directly with cities on infrastructure redesign projects ranging from bioretention cell implementation to a fully shared street concept plan. She is currently one of the key leads in our lead service line observation team, managing and completing records review, public outreach, on-site observations, and preparation of water service line inventories in multiple regions throughout Vermont. She derives inspiration from MSK’s people-focused approach to engineering, especially in her door-to-door service line outreach as she is able to see firsthand the positive effects on the community.
In her free time, Aubrey enjoys being outside, traveling, hiking, camping, and photography. Her varying interests have led her to pursue a LEED Green Associates Certification and focus on a commitment to social and environmental sustainability/justice in and outside of her professional career.
Bio coming soon!
Cameron joined MSK in 2023 after completing his BS in Architectural Engineering and Building Technology from Vermont Technical College and brings with him a varied background of experience in civil contracting and construction inspection. As a prior consultant with EIV Technical Services he managed and observed all aspects of daily operations to ensure project compliance with Vermont Agency of Transportation specifications. His additional experience includes field work, site inspections, tracking costs, nuclear density testing of soil and asphalt, concrete framework inspection, lab testing of building materials, and GPS support.
He currently supports our lead service line replacement team with performing daily door-to-door service line observations, records review, data entry and analysis, contract management, and inventory preparation. He also supports all aspects of our customer outreach program, including scheduling homeowner appointments and attending town meetings as we continue to expand our program in small water systems across VT including Troy, Hinesburg, Montpelier, North Hyde Park, Milton, Jericho, and Barton. Outside of work Cameron enjoys playing guitar and cooking, especially experimenting with new recipes.
With over 7 years of civil engineering experience across 5 states (Idaho, Iowa, Utah, Wyoming, and California), Telisha brings a strong background to MSK in a wide range of projects from transportation to site development. She has managed and designed a wide range of residential developments with full utilities and drainage ponds. She has also worked on transportation projects ranging from a 20-mile highway full design to a reconstruction of a city block. Her commercial development experience includes supporting clients including Marriot hotels, the University of Iowa, and the University of Idaho in a variety of projects.
Among her projects at MSK she is currently working on design of a 4-block residential development in Silverton, CO, which includes roadways, sidewalks, alleys, utilities, and stormwater detention. She is also producing grading design of a Bennington-based Chipotle/Starbucks building with drive-thru lanes and parking lots, stormwater design for a Lays distribution building in multiple towns, and conceptional redesign for the main intersection in the city of Peru, VT.
Outside of her virtual Idaho office, she spends her time chasing around her 2 toddlers along with her husband, traveling, and finding any new adventure she can experience.
Currently working remotely from Michigan, Christian contributes behind the scenes support to our lead service line replacement project team with reviewing records and drawings, data entry and analysis, contract management, inventory preparation, and organizing excel sheets of customer lists we continue to expand our program throughout Vermont.
A recent grad of Amherst College, Christian holds a music degree and brings a wealth of technical experience which has been very important in his role. As a former IT specialist in the music industry, he analyzed data, researched, evaluated, and planned partnership and prepared visualization to support business development strategies for independent music labels.
In his free time, Christian enjoys writing and producing music and playing computer games.
Marina recently joined MSK Engineers. She supports water service line efforts with records reviews, public outreach, and completing water service line observations.
Matthew plays a key role in supporting our lead service line inventory team, currently serving as the lead engineer & coordinator for a growing number of Vermont water systems. He serves as our primary point of contact between MSK’s water system clients and our internal team, while overseeing records reviews, data analysis, outreach, reporting, and preparation of water service line inventories as we continue to expand our presence in Burlington. Outside of the lead project, he applies these skills across the organization in other areas, most recently working with our Senior Geotechnical Engineer to perform record reviews and GIS mapping for remediation of PFAS in Litchfield, New Hampshire.
A graduate of the University of Oklahoma with a BS in environmental engineering, he gained extensive experience with data management, laboratory methods, and field work as a research assistant for the Oklahoma Water Survey, where he worked on research projects in the fields of hydrology and water treatment. At the Oklahoma Water Survey, he also had some very unique experiences during Covid, in which he got to collaborate with the university’s microbiology department to aid in studying the virus’s ability to travel through our wastewater systems in order to inform potentially infected or at-risk populations before they developed symptoms. He has also worked for the Oklahoma Department of Environmental Quality as a staff engineer in which he worked to provide technical assistance, review permitting, and promote federal and state compliance within municipal wastewater, municipal stormwater, water reuse, biosolids, and industrial pretreatment programs for a large portion of the state. When he isn’t working, he enjoys practicing the piano, homesteading, and playing board games with friends.
Joining our Bennington team all the way from Fairbanks, Alaska, Jason joined MSK in December of 2022 working on the Bennington Lead Service Line Project. He previously worked and lived in Alaska in the fields of destructive and non-destructive testing, welding inspection, and visual inspection of energy infrastructure, most recently working on Trans Alaska Pipeline System. (Often an extremely remote job, he could be camping up to 500 miles from home to do this work!) He has certifications in many different types of inspections and brings to the team 20 years of experience and knowledge of the construction industry.
Although the scenery over there was beautiful, Jason now resides in the Bennington area with his family is currently enjoying Green Mountain beauty as one of the key leads on our lead service line observation team, managing and completing records review, public outreach, on-site observations, construction observation, and preparation of water service line inventories in multiple regions throughout Vermont.
Outside of work , Jason enjoys all kinds of building and remodeling projects, architecture, green energy initiatives. He loves going home to be endlessly amused at what arts and crafts projects his daughters have been creating, and often joining in.
Joining MSK from the west coast, John brings over 32 years of experience in infrastructure design, development, and construction administration for major commercial and industrial projects throughout the San Franscisco and Southern California regions. Professionally licensed in CA, he has played a key role as a consulting mechanical engineer on the design of HVAC systems for DoD, GSA, and national laboratory projects both in the US and globally. He has provided consulting engineering services for the Eisenhower Med Center in Palm Springs, as well as a hospital and biotech firm in San Francisco. In his years with Western Allied Mechanical, John provided construction administration & project management for major film studios including Paramount, Warner Bros and Universal, which included creating estimates, bidding jobs, and oversight of budget, equipment, and contractors.
Currently John is an integral member of MSK’s environmental team, focusing on water systems and bringing innovative solutions to our lead team as we continue to lead Vermont in water service line identification and lead service line replacement. He supports our service line inventory efforts across many areas, including permitting, records reviews, and water service line observations.
Outside of the office, John enjoys the beach and spending time with his 2 children playing and coaching soccer.
Justin joined MSK in the summer of 2022. He earned a B.S. in Computer Engineering and an M.S. in Software Engineering at Vermont Technical College. While earning his degrees, Justin worked in Public Works in the Town of Bennington and helped to build up a modern digital GIS system for all the town’s assets.
His GIS expertise has been as asset for MSK in mapping out important aspects of our lead service line replacement project throughout Vermont, and he also applies this tech savviness to supporting some key functionality within our payroll system. His interest in tinkering with computers and electronics spills into his free time, as outside of the office Justin is an avid gamer and programmer. He also enjoys First Person drone flying as well as working in his family’s maple sugar bush.
Bio coming soon!
Bio coming soon!
Ethan joined MSK in 2020, bringing with him years of experience managing complex operations in the food retail sector and a passionate commitment to creating a cleaner, safer environment. Following his decision to pursue a career transition, Ethan earned a B.S. in natural resource management from SUNY-ESF.
As a member of our construction inspection field crew, survey group, and environmental engineering team, Ethan draws on his experience in data collection, data analysis, and water quality science to strengthen MSK’s project work.
Ethan is a longtime resident of Hoosick Falls, NY. When not at work, Ethan enjoys pursuing his interests in forest ecology and wildlife biology.
Kyle Mallory, a geotechnical engineer-in-training, joined MSK in 2020. As a member of our geotechnical engineering team, he has worked on a variety of geotechnical projects in both Vermont and Connecticut. Prior to joining MSK, Kyle spent 4 years at the Greater Boston office of a national engineering firm, where he developed expertise in geotechnical instrumentation and vibration monitoring to ensure soil stability and the structural integrity of features on and near construction sites. He has worked on projects involving rail, airports, buried utilities, stormwater infrastructure, and commercial buildings in diverse settings, from downtown Boston to small New England cities. He earned his B.S. in civil engineering from the University of New Hampshire, with concentrations in structural and geotechnical engineering.
Tom has more than 30 years of drafting experience and has been with MSK since 2014. He has applied his technical knowledge and skills to several major municipal, community and commercial projects, including assisting in the production of plans for an extensive expansion of the Town of Bennington Water System to service the southern end of Bennington and Southern Vermont College and the PFOA Remediation Municipal Waterline Extension project. He is responsible for developing and maintaining MSK’s CAD standards, providing quality control on plan production across the organization, and mentoring staff who are developing their CAD skills. He also works closely with survey staff, helping to translate field data into polished drawings that contain the correct level of detail and prioritize legibility for the client.
When he’s not in the MSK offices, Tom likes to spend his time making music with his family and friends, and correcting other people’s grammar.
Michael, a western Massachusetts native, was born and raised in North Adams where he enjoyed outdoor activities and using any chance he had to play guitar. Through his involvement in the school marching and jazz bands along with personal groups formed amongst friends, Michael developed a strong love for all things music.
Following his passion from his earlier years, Michael attended the University of Massachusetts Amherst where he pursued to further his craft on the guitar by studying Jazz and African music. However, he soon realized he missed the academic challenges he was fond of, and thus went on to earn two bachelor’s degrees in his time at UMass: one in civil engineering and the other in jazz guitar. While some may find these two an odd juxtaposition, it was an easy choice for Michael as he had always been interested in how structures were created and the vast scale and complexity of civil infrastructure.
Michael joined MSK in the summer of 2020 as an intern assisting in construction observation, returned the following summer, and finally joined the team full time as a staff engineer working heavily on the lead service line remediation project and assisting in engineering design in 2022 when he graduated from UMass.
Michael still continues to play guitar to this day and brings this creative mindset to the engineering field to help provide others with a unique perspective and quality, detail-oriented solutions to projects he is working on. His time spent playing in multiple musical groups and organizing shows helped him hone his communication skills, an integral part of the civil engineering trade.
Bio coming soon!
Bio coming soon!
A recent addition to MSK, Will currently supports our lead service line replacement team with performing daily inspections, construction administration, and collaborating on contract development as we continue to expand our program in Bennington. After 20+ years owning his own construction business specializing in new construction, renovation, and repair, Will enjoys the collaborative and team-based environment at MSK after being a sole business operator. Outside of the office, Will enjoys mountain biking and writing music.
With background in environmental restoration, Chris joined us in November 2023. Prior to MSK, he served as a Response Manager with a Burlington-based environmental restoration firm where he managed emergency calls for hazardous chemical spills, including oil, gas, acids, bases, lead, asbestos, and mercury. He also worked as a Field Technician for a NH-based ADS Environmental Services firm, where he had the opportunity to install and maintain flow meters in wastewater projects across the Northeastern US.
Chris holds a BS in Environmental Science and Policy from Plymouth State University in NH. He grew up off-roading and camping with his friends and family in the unpredictable New England weather, and he enjoys working with teams in challenging situations to complete complicated tasks with a limited timeline.
At MSK Chris supports our lead service line replacement project team with performing records reviews, public outreach, on-site water service line observations, and preparation of water service line inventories as we continue to expand our presence in Burlington. In his free time Christopher likes to hike, rock climb, and cook vegan meals.
Currently a student at the University of Vermont, Sarah supports our lead service line replacement project team with performing records reviews, amending documents, ordering supplies, and overall preparation of water service line inventories as we continue to expand our presence in Burlington. She enjoys getting to talk to people and seeing cool old record maps as part of her role on this project.
Originally hailing from Minnesota, Sarah appreciates being at MSK because, “The projects that MSK works on intersect with sustainability, public safety, and equity and it’s cool to see these issues from a new lens. I’ve already learned a lot!” When she is not at work or school, she is swing dancing, rowing, or working on arts and crafts projects.
Currently a student at the University of Vermont, River supports our lead service line replacement project team with site visits, door-to-door outreach, and preparation of water service line inventories as we continue to expand our presence in Burlington. He joined MSK because he is passionate about creating sustainable solutions that can make a positive impact on our state, and he enjoys working with our team to help the community in a personable way. In his free time River enjoys skiing and hiking, and if he must be indoors, he can be found watching a new movie or playing cards.
Bio coming soon!
Currently an Environmental Engineering student at the University of Vermont, Hugh supports our lead service line replacement project team with site visits, door-to-door outreach, reviewing records and drawings, and organizing excel sheets of customer lists as we continue to expand our program in Burlington. He especially enjoys doing field observations as part of his role, and appreciates the opportunity to gain real experience in professional engineering. Outside of the office he likes to play rugby, ski, get outside, and eat food!
Currently a student at the University of Vermont, Joana supports our lead service line replacement project team with performing records reviews and preparation of water service line inventories as we continue to expand our presence in Burlington. She is excited to be getting background experience in a career field she has interest in, especially in such a welcoming and friendly environment. Joana takes advantage of the beautiful scenery nearby as she enjoys doing door-to-door outreach and line observations throughout Vermont. Outside of the office, she enjoys spending time with family and friends, being in nature and hiking.
Currently a student at the University of Vermont, Leah supports our lead service line inventory team with records review, site visits, door-to-door outreach, and preparation of water service line inventories throughout Southwestern Vermont. When Leah isn’t at work you might find her on the frisbee field or relaxing while knitting.
Laszlo supports our lead service line inventory team with records review, site visits, door-to-door outreach, and preparation of water service line inventories throughout Southwestern Vermont. Currently a student at the University of Vermont, he is gaining experience at UVM’s Spatial Analysis Lab to support his strong interest in urban planning and design and enjoys being a part of projects focusing on community health and resilience through his work here at MSK. Outside of “the office”, Laszlo enjoys recreational outdoor activities including skateboarding, hiking, or snowboarding.